Prof. Dr. Rolf Bak

Facilities for Visitors

Prof. Dr. Rolf Bak

Prof. Dr. Rolf BakNetherlands Institute for Sea Research
P.O. Box 59
1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands

IBED, University of Amsterdam
P.O.Box 94766
1090 GT Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Mauritskade 57
1092 AD Amsterdam, The Netherlands


Publications relevant to Curacao:

  • Bak RPM, Nieuwland G, Meesters, EH 2009. Coral growth rates revisited after 31 years: what is  causing lower extension rates in Acropora palmata? Bull.Mar.Sci. 84:287-294
  • Nugues MM, Bak RPM 2008, Long-term dynamics of the brown macroalga lobophora variegate on deep reefs in Curacao. Coral Reefs 27:389-393
  • Nugues MM, Bak RPM 2007. Dark spot syndrome: recent or old? Coral reefs. 26: 359
  • Scheffers SR, Scheffers A, Kelletat D, Radtke U, K. Staben, Bak RPM. 2006. Tsunamis triggers long-lasting phase-shift in a coral reef ecosystem. Annals of Geomorphology 146: 59-79
  • Nugues MM, Bak RPM. 2006. Differential competitive abilities between Caribbean coral species and a brown alga: a year of experiments and a long term perspective. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser.315: 75-86
  • Kaandorp, JA, Bak RPM, Vermeij MJA, 2005. Modelling of nutrient gradients in three-dimensional images – and simulated morphologies of a branching coral. Proc 10th Coral Reef Symp. Okinawa
  • Bak RPM, Nieuwland G, Meesters, EH 2005. Coral reef crisis in deep and shallow reefs: 30 years of constancy and change in reefs of Curaçao and Bonaire. Coral Reefs 24: 475 – 480
  • Scheffers SR, Bak RPM, van Duyl FC 2005 Why is bacterioplankton growth in coral reef framework cavities enhanced? MEPS 299:89-99
  • Kaandorp, J.A., Koopman, E.A., Sloot, P.M.A., Merks, R.M.H., Bak, R.P.M., Vermeij, M.J.A., Maier, C. 2005. Morphogenesis of the branching coral Madracis mirabilis. Proc..Roy.Soc.B. 272: 127 – 133
  • Nugues, M.M., Delvoye, L., Bak, R.P.M. 2004. Coral defense against macroalgae: differential effects of mesenterial filaments on the green alga Halimeda opuntia. Mar.Ecol.progr.Ser. 278:1103-114
  • Scheffers, S.R., Nieuwland, G., Bak, R.P.M., van Duyl, F.C 2004. Removal of bacteria and nutrient dynamics within the coral reef framework of Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles). Coral Reefs 23: 413-422 Nugues, M.M., Smith, G.W., van Hooidonk, R.J., Seabra, M.I., Bak, R.P.M. 2004. Algal contact as a trigger for coral disease. Ecol. Let. 7: 919-923
  • Epstein, N., Vermeij, M.J.A., Bak, R.P.M., Rinkevich, B. 2004 Alleviating impacts of anthropogenic activities by traditional conservation measures: can a small reef reserve be sustainedly managed ? Biol.Conserv. 121: 243-255
  • Maier, C., Patzold, .and R.P.M. Bak 2004. Effect of skeletal growth and lack of species effects in the skeletal oxygen isotope climate signal within the coral genus Porites. Marine Geology, 207 (1-4): 193-208, 2004
  • Maier, C., Patzold, .and R.P.M. 2004. Bak.Skeletal isotopic composition as an indicator of ecological ad physiological plasticity in the coral genus Madracis, Coral Reefs 22;370-380
  • Vermeij, M.J.A., Bak, R.P.M., 2003. Species-specific population structure of closely related coral morphospecies along a depth gradient (5-60m) over a Caribbean reef slope. Bull.Mar.Sci. 73: 725-744
  • Bak, R.P.M., Meesters, E.H. 2003. Acclimatization/adaptation of coral reefs in a marginal environment. Proc. 9th Int Coral Reef Symposium. Vol 1, 265-272
  • Vermeij, M.J.A., Sampayo, E., Bröker, K, Bak, R.P.M. 2004. The reproductive biology of closely related coral species: gametogenesis in Madracis from the southern Caribbean. Coral Reefs 23: 206-214
  • Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M., Rinkevich, B. 2003. Applying forest restoration principles to coral reef rehabilitation. Aquatic Conserv.Mar.Freshw.Ecosyst. 13: 387-395
  • Scheffers, S.R., de Goeij, J., van Duyl, F.C., Bak R.P.M. 2003. the cave-profiler: a simple tool to describe the 3-D structure in inaccessible coral reef cavities. Coral Reefs 22: 49-53
  • Kaandorp, J.A., Koopman, E.A., Sloot, P.M.A., Bak, R.P.M., Vermeij, M.J.A., Lampmann, L.E.H. 2003. Simulation and analysis of flow patterns around the scleractinian Madracis mirabilis (Duchassaiong and Michelotti). Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond.B.358: 1551-1557
  • Vermeij, M.J.A., Engelen, A.H., Bak, R.P.M. 2003. Deep formations (50–80 m) of the solitary coral Phacelocyanthus flos on southern Caribbean reefs. Coral Reefs 22: 107-108
  • Diekmann, O.E., Olsen, J.L., Stam, W.T., Bak, R.P.M.. 2003. Genetic variation within Symbiodinium clade B from the coral genus Madracis in the Caribbean (Netherlands Antilles). Coral reefs 22: 29-33
  • Vermeij, M.J.A., Diekmann, O.E., Bak, R.P.M. 2003. A new species of scleractinian coral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Madracis carmabi n. sp. from the southern Caribbean. Bull.mar.Sci. 73: 679-684
  • Vermeij, M.J.A., Sampayo, E., Bröker, Bak, R.P.M. 2003. Variation in planulae release of closely related coral species. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser.247: 75-84
  • Vermeij, M.J.A., Bak, R.P.M., 2003. Inferring demographic processes from population size structure in corals. Proc. 9th Int Coral Reef Symposium. Vol 1, 589-594
  • Vermeij, M.J.A., Bak, R.P.M., 2002. Corals on the move: rambling of Madracis pharensis polyps early after settlement. Coral Reefs 21: 262-263
  • Vermeij, M.J.A.,  L. Delvoye, G. Nieuwland, R.P.M. Bak. 2002. Patterns in fluorescence over a Caribbean reef slope; the coral genus Madracis. Photosynthetica 40: 423-429
  • Duyl, F.C. van, Gast, G.J., Steinhoff, W., Kloff, S., Veldhuis, M.J.W., Bak, R.P.M. 2002. Factors influencing the short-term variation in phytoplankton composition and biomass in coral reef waters. Coral Reefs 21: 293-306
  • Diekmann, O.E., Bak, R.P.M., Tonk, L., Stam, W.T., Olsen, J.L. 2002, No habitat correlation of zooxanthellae in the coral genus Madracis on a Curacao reef. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser. 227: 221-232
  • Vermeij, M.J.A and Bak, R.P.M. 2002. How are coral populations structured by light? Marine light regimes and the distribution of Madracis.. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser.233: 105-116
  • Meesters, E.H., Nieuwland, G. Duineveld, G.C.A, Kok, A., Bak, R.P.M., 2002. RNA/DNA ratios of corals suggest acclimatization/adaptation in relation to light gradients and turbidity regimes. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser. 227: 233-239
  • Bak, R.P.M. 2001. Long-term effects of an oil refinery on coral reefs: Aruba. 2001. In: Talbot, F. & Wilkinson, C. Coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses: a sourcebook for managers, Australian Institute of Marine Science. Townsville, p. 129-130
  • Epstein, N, Bak, R.P.M., Rinkevich, B. 2001. Strategies for gardening denuded coral reef areas: the applicability of using different types of coral material for reef restoration. Restoration Ecol. 9:432-442
  • Diekmann, O.E., Bak, R.P.M., Stam, W.T., Olsen, J.L. 2001, Molecular genetic evidence for probable reticulate speciation in the coral genus Madracis from a Caribbean fringing reef. Mar.Biol.139:221-233
  • Meesters, E.H., Hilterman, M., Kardinaal, E., Keetman, M., de Vries, M., Bak, R.P.M., 2001. Colony size-frequency distributions of scleractinian coral populations: Spatial and interspecific variation. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser. 209: 43-54
  • Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M., Rinkevich, B. 2000. Toxicity of third generation dispersants and dispersed Egyptian crude oil on Red Sea coral larvae. Mar.Poll.Bull.40:497-503
  • Vermeij, M. J.A., J.A. Kaandorp, R.PM. Bak and L. Lampmann, 2001. Three-dimensional morphological analysis of growth forms of  Madracis mirabilis (preliminary results). In: Kaandorp, J.A. & J.E. Kubler, The Algorithmic beauty of seaweeds, sponges and corals, Springer-verlag, Heidelberg, New York, p. 87-90
  • Nagelkerken, I., Bouma, S., van den Akker, S., Bak, R.P.M. 2000. Growth and survival of unattached Madracis mirabilis fragments transplanted to different reef sites, and the implication for reef rehabilitation. Bull.Mar.Sci.66: 497-505
  • Duineveld, G.C.A., Tselepides, A., Witbaard, R., Bak, R.P.M., Berghuis, E.M., Nieuwland, G., van der Weele, J. Kok, A., 2000. Benthic-pelagic coupling in the oligotrophic Cretan Sea. Progr.Oceanogr. 46: 457-480
  • Bak, R.P.M., Meesters, E.H. 1999. Population structure as a response of coral communities to global change. Am.Zool. 39: 56-65
  • Hondeveld, B.J.M., Bak, R.P.M., Van Raaphorst, W., Van Duyl, F.C.,. 1999. Impact of sediment grazing by benthic eukaryotic organisms on the nitrogen sediment-water exchange in the North Sea. J.Sea Res. 41; 255-268
  • Gast, G.J., Jonkers, P.J., Duyl, F.C.van, Bak, R.P.M. 1999. Bacteria, flagellates and nutrients in island fringing coral reef waters: influence of the ocean, the reef and eutrophication. Bull. Mar. Sci. 65: 523-538
  • Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M., Rinkevich, B.1999. Implementation of a small scale “no-use zone” policy in a reef ecosystem: Eilat’s reef-lagoon six years later. Coral Reefs 18: 327-332
  • Nagelkerken, I., Meesters, E.,H, Bak, R.P.M. 1999. Depth-related variation in regeneration of artificial lesions in the Caribbean corals Porites astreoides and Stephanocoenia michelinii. J.Exp. Mar.Biol.Ecol. 234: 29-39
  • Bak, R.P.M., Meesters, E.H. 1998. Coral population structure: the hidden information of colony size-frequency distributions. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser. 162: 301-306
  • Nagelkerken, I., Bak, R.P.M. 1998. Differential regeneration of artificial lesions among sympatric morphs of the Caribbean corals Porites astreoides ans Stephanocoenia michelinii. Mar.Ecol.Progr.Ser. 163: 279-283
  • Gast, G.J., Wiegman, S., Wieringa, E., van Duyl, F.C., Bak, R.P.M. 1998. Bacteria in coral reef water types: removal of cells, stimulation of growth and minaralization. Mar.Ecol.Progr.Ser. 167: 37-45
  • Meesters, E.H., Bak, R.P.M., Westmacott, S., Ridgley, M., Dollar, S. 1998. A fuzzy logic model to predict coral reef development under nutrient and sediment stress. Conservation Biol. 12: 957-965
  • Bak, R.P.M., Joenje, M., de Jong, I., Lambrechts, D.Y.M., Nieuwland, G. 1998. Bacterial suspension feeding by coral reef benthic organisms. Mar.Ecol.Progr.Ser. 175: 285-288
  • Bak, R.P.M. Meesters, E.H. 1997. Coral diversity, populations and ecosystem functioning. Proc. 6th Int Conf Coelenterates Noordwijkerhout, pp. 27-38
  • Meesters, E.H., Wesseling,I and R.P.M. Bak. 1997. Coral colony tissue damage in six species of reef-building corals: partial mortality in relation with depth and colony surface area. J.Sea Res. 37: 131-144
  • Meesters, E.H., Pauchli, W., Bak, R.P.M. 1997. Predicting maximum regeneration of physical damage on a reef building coral by regeneration capacity and lesion shape. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser. 146: 91-99
  • Bak, R.P.M., Nieuwland, G.1997. Seasonal variation in bacterial and flagellate communities of deep-sea sediments in a monsonal upwelling system. Deep-Sea Res II, 44:1281-1292
  • Bak, R.P.M., Lambrechts, D.Y.M., Joenje, M., Nieuwland, G., Van Veghel, M.J.L. 1996. Long-term changes on coral reefs in booming populations of a competitive colonial ascidian. Mar.Ecol. Prog.Ser. 133: 303-306
  • Van Veghel, M.L.J., Cleary, D.F.R., Bak, R.P.M. 1996. Interspecific interactions and competitive ability of the polymorphic reef-building coral Montastrea annularis. Bull.Mar.Sci. 58: 792-803
  • Starink, M., M-J. Bär-Gilissen, R.P.M. Bak and T.E. Cappenberg. 1996. Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and bacterial production in sediments of a freshwater littoral system. Limnol. Oceanagr. 41: 62-69
  • Starink, M., M-J. Bär-Gilissen, R.P.M. Bak and T.E. Cappenberg. 1996. Seasonal and spatial variations in heterotrophic nanoflagellate and bacterial abundances in sediments of a freshwater littoral zone. Limnol.Oceanogr. 41: 234-242
  • Meesters, E.H., Wesseling,I and R.P.M. Bak. 1996. Partial mortality in three species of reef-building corals and the relation with colony morphology.  Bull.Mar.Sci. 58: 230-244
  • Frank, U., Bak, R.P.M., Rinkevich, B. 1996. Allorecognition responses in the soft coral Parerythropodium fulvum fulvum from the Red Sea. J.Exp.Mar.Biol.Ecol. 197: 191-201
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G. Nieuwland. 1995. Long-term change in coral communities along depth gradients over leeward reefs in the Netherlands Antilles. Bull. Mar. Sci. 56: 609-619
  • Bak, R.P.M., F.C. van Duyl and G. Nieuwland. 1995. Organic sedimentation and macrofauna as forcing factors in marine benthic nanoflagellate communities. Microb. Ecol. 29: 173-182
  • Meesters, E.H. and R.P.M. Bak. 1995. Age-related deterioration of a physiological function in the branching coral Acropora palmata.  Mar. Ecol. Prog.Ser. 121: 203-209
  • Frank, U., B. Rinkevich, Y. Loya, R.P.M. Bak, Y. Achituv, I. Brickner. 1995. Allogeneic and xenogeneic interactions in reef-building corals may induce tissue growth without coalcification. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 124: 181-188
  • Hondeveld, B.J.M., Nieuwland, G., F.C. van Duyl and R.P.M. Bak. 1995. Impact of nanoflagellate bactivory on benthic bacterial production in the North Sea. Neth.J.Sea Res. 34: 275-287
  • Brussaard, C.P.D., Riegman,R., Noordeloos, A.A.M., Cadee, G.C., Witte, H., Kop, A.J., Nieuwland, G., van Duyl, F.C. and R.P.M. Bak. 1995. Effects of grazing, sedimentation and phytoplankton cell lysis on the structure of a coastal pelagic food web. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser. 123: 259-271
  • Vanhove, S., Wittoeck, J., Desmet, G., van den Berghe, B., Herman, R.L., Bak, R.P.M., Nieuwland, G., Vosjan, J.H., Boldrin, A., Rabitti, S. and M. Vinck. 1995. Deep-sea meiofauna communities in Antarctica: structural analysis and relation with the environment. Mar.Ecol.Prog.Ser.127: 65-76
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1994. Sea urchin bioerosion on coral reefs: place in carbonate budget and relevant variables. Coral Reefs 13: 99-103.
  • Starink, M., M-J. Bär-Gilissen, R.P.M. Bak and T.E. Cappenberg. 1994. Quantitative centrifucation to extract benthic protozoa from freshwater sediments. Appl. Environmen. Microbiol. 60: 167-173.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G. Nieuwland. 1994. Twenty years of change in coral communities over deep reef slopes along leeward coasts in the Netherlands Antilles. Special Volume Rosenstiel School Marine Atmospheric Sciences, Miami. pp 154-159
  • Rinkevich, B., U. Frank, R.P.M. Bak and W.E.G. Muller. 1994. Alloimmune responses between Acropora hemprichi conspecifics: non transitive patterns of overgrowth and delayed cytotoxicity. Mar. Biol. 118: 731-737.
  • Van Veghel, M.L.J. and R.P.M. Bak. 1994. Reproductive characteristics of the polymorphic Caribbean reef building coral Montastrea annularis . III. Reproduction in damaged and regenerating colonies. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 109: 229-233.
  • Meesters, E.H., M. Noordeloos and R.P.M. Bak.1994.Damage and regeneration: links to growth in the reef-building coral Montastrea annularis. Mar. Ecol. Prog.Ser. 112: 119-128
  • Starink, M., I.N. Krylova, M-J. Bär-Gilissen, R.P.M. Bak and T.E. Cappenberg.1994. Rates of benthic protozoan grazing on free and attached sediment bacteria measured with fluorescently stained sediment. Appl. Environmen. Microbiol. 60: 2259-2264
  • Hondeveld, B.J.M., Nieuwland, G., F.C. van Duyl and R.P.M. Bak. 1994. Temporal and spatial variations in heterotrophic nanoflagellate abundance in North Sea sediments. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 109: 235-243
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G. Nieuwland. 1993. Patterns in pelagic and benthic nanoflagellate densities in the coastal upwelling system along the Banc d’Arguin, Mauretania. Hydrobiol. 258: 119-131.
  • Meesters, E.H. and R.P.M. Bak. 1993. Effects of coral bleaching on tissue regeneration potential and colony survival. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 96: 189-198.
  • Van Veghel, M.L.J. and R.P.M. Bak. 1993. Intraspecific variation of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Montastrea annularis: genetic, behavioral and morphometric aspects. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92: 255-265.
  • Bak, R.P.M., A. Boldrin, G. Nieuwland and S. Rabitti. 1992. Biogenic particles and nano/picoplankton in water masses over the Scotia-Weddell Sea Confluence, Antarctica. Polar Biol. 12: 219-224.
  • Boekel, W.H.M., van, F.C. Hansen, R.Riegman and R.P..M. Bak. 1992. Lysis-induced decline of a Phaeocystis spring bloom and coupling with the microbial foodweb. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 81: 269-276.
  • Van Duyl, F.C., R.P.M. Bak, A.J. Kop, G. Nieuwland, E.M. Berghuis and A. Kok. 1992. Mesocosm experiments: mimicking seasonal developments of microbial variables in North Sea sediments. Hydrobiol. 235/236: 267-281.
  • Hondeveld, B.J.M., R.P.M. Bak and F.C. van Duyl. 1992. Bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates in marine sediments measured by uptake of fluorescently labeled bacteria. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 89: 63-71.
  • Bak, R.P.M., F.C. van Duyl, G. Nieuwland and A.J. Kop. 1991. Benthic heterotrophic nanoflagellates in North Sea field/mesocosm bottoms and their response to algal sedimentation. Ophelia 33: 187-196.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G. Nieuwland. 1991. Benthic microflagellates and bacteria in the sediments of the western Weddell Sea. Ber.  Polarforsch. 68: 88-90.Bak, R.P.M. 1990. Patterns of echinoid bioerosion in two Pacific coral reef lagoons. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 66: 267-272.
  • Bak, R.P.M., J.H. Vosjan and G. Nieuwland. 1990. Micro organisms in a N-S transect across the Weddell-Scotia confluence zone. Ber. Polarforsch. 68: 31-35.
  • Van Duyl, F.C., R.P.M. Bak, A.J. Kop and G. Nieuwland. 1990. Bacteria, auto- and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and their relations in mixed, frontal and stratified waters of the North Sea. Neth. J. Sea Res. 26: 97-109.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G. Nieuwland. 1989. Seasonal fluctuations in benthic protozoan populations at different depths in marine sediments. Neth. J. Sea.  Res. 24: 37-44.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G.D.E. Povel. 1989. Ecological variables, including physiognomic-structural attributes, and classification of Indonesian coral reefs. Neth. J. Sea.  Res. 23: 95-106.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G.D.E. Povel. 1988. Ecological structure and variation in a range of Indonesian fore-reef slope coral communities. Proc. 6th. Int. Coral. Reef. Symp. Townsville, Vol. 2: 185-190.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1987. Effect of chronic oil pollution on a Caribbean coral reef. Mar. Pol. Bull. 18: 534-539.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and R.W.P.M. Laane. 1987. Annual black bands in skeletons of reef corals (Scleractinia). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 38: 169-175.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G. Nieuwland. 1987. Densities of protozoan nanoplankton in intertidal mesocosms: influence of oil pollution and a self-igniting cleaning agent. Neth. J. Sea Res. 21: 303-315.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1986. Variations on coral reefs in response to gradients limiting primary production. In: Caribbean coastal marine productivity (eds. J.C. Ogden and E.H. Galdfelter). UNESCO Rep. Mar. Sci. 41: 30-37.
  • Ruyter van Steveninck, E.D. de and R.P.M. Bak. 1986. Changes in abundance of coral-reef bottom components related to mass mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 34: 87-94.
  • Lester, R.T. and R.P.M.Bak. 1985. Effects of environment on regeneration rate of tissue lesions in the reef coral Montastrea annularis (Scleractinia). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 24: 183-185.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1985. Recruitment patterns and mass mortalities in the sea urchin Diadema antillarum. Proc. Fifth Int. Coral Reef Congr. Tahiti, Vol. 5: 267-272.
  • Dodge, R.E., T.D. Jickells, A.H. Knop, S. Boyd and R.P.M. Bak. 1984. Reef-building coral skeletons as chemical pollution (Phosphorus) indicators. Mar. Pol. Bull. 15: 178-187.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and J.L.A. Borsboom. 1984. Allelochemical interaction between a reef coelenterate and benthic algae. Oecologie (berl.) 63: 194-198.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1983. Aspects of community organization in Caribbean stony corals (Scleractinia). In: Coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves: their interaction in the coastal zones of the Caribbean (eds. J.C. Ogden & E.H. Gladfelter). UNESCO Rep. Mar. Sci. 23: 51-68.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1983. Neoplasia, regeneration and growth in the reefbuilding coral Acropora palmata. Mar. Biol. 77: 221-227.
  • Bak, R.P.M., M.J.E. Carpay and E.D. de Ruyter van Steveninck. 1983. Density of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum before and after mass mortalities on the coral reefs of Curaçao. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 17: 105-108.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and S.R. Criens. 1982. Survival after fragmentation of colonies of Madracis mirabilis, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Scleractinia) and the subsequent impact of a coral disease. Proc. Fourth Int. Symp. Coral Reefs, Manila 1981, Vol. 2: 221-227.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and S.R. Criens. 1982. Experimental fusion in Atlantic Acropora (Scleractinia). Mar. Biol. Lett. 3: 67-72.
  • Bak, R.P.M., R.M. Termaat and R. Dekker. 1982. The complexity of coral interactions: influence of time, location of interaction and epifauna. Mar. Biol. 69: 215-222.
  • Van Duyl, F.C., J. Sybesma and R.P.M. Bak. 1981. The ecology of the tropical compound ascidian Trididemnum solidum (Van Name) I. Reproductive strategy and larval behaviour. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 6: 35-42.
  • Bak, R.P.M., J. Sybesma and F.C. van Duyl. 1981. The ecology of the tropical compound ascidian Trididemnum solidum II. Abundance, growth and survival. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 6: 43-52.
  • Sybesma, J., F.C. van Duyl and R.P.M. Bak. 1981. The ecology of the tropical compound ascidian Trididemnum solidum (Van Name) III. Symbiosis with unicellular algae. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 6: 52-59.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and Y. Steward-Van Es. 1980. Regeneration of superficial damage in the scleractinian corals Agaricia agaricites, f. purpurae and Porites astreoides. Bull. Mar. Sc. 30: 883-887.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and  B.E. Luckhurst. 1980. Constancy and change in coral reef habitats along depth gradients at Curaçao. Oecologia 47, pp. 145-155.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and M.S. Engel. 1979. Distribution, abundance and survival of juvenile hermatypic corals (Scleractinia) and the importance of life history strategies in the parent coral community. Mar. Biol. 54: 341-352.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1978. Lethal and sublethal effects of dredging on reef corals. Mar. Pol. Bull. 9: 14-16.
  • Hoek, C. van den, A.M. Breeman, R.P.M. Bak and G. van Buurt. 1978. The distribution of algae, corals and gorgonians in relation to depth, light attenuation, water movement and grazing pressure in the fringing coral reef of Curaçao, Neth. Antilles. Aquatic Bot. 5: 1-46.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1977. Coral reefs and their zonation in the Netherlands Antilles. Stud. Geol. 4, AAPG Tulsa: 3-16.
  • Bak, R.P.M., J.J.W.M. Brouns and F.M.L. Heys. 1977. Regeneration and aspects of spatial competition in the scleractinian corals Agarici agaricites and Montastrea annularis. Proc. Third Int. Coral Reef Symp. Miami, Vol. 1: 143-148.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1976. The growth of coral colonies and the importance of crustose coralline algae and burrowing sponges in relation with carbonate accumulation. Neth. J. Sea Res. 10: 285-337.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and J.H.B.W. Elgershuizen. 1976. Patterns of oil-sediment rejection in corals. Mar. Biol. 37: 105-113.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1975. Ecological aspects of the distribution of reef corals in the Netherlands Antilles. Bijdr. Dierk. 45: 181-190.
  • Bak, R.P.M. and G. van Eys.1975. Predation of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum Philippi on living coral. Oecologia Berl. 20: 111-115.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1974. Available light and other factors influencing growth of stony corals through the year in Curaçao. Proc. Second Int. Coral Reef Symp. Brisbane, Vol. 2: 229-233.
  • Bak, R.P.M. 1973. Coral weight increment in-situ. A new method to determine coral growth. Mar. Biol. 20: 45-49


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